IJAA June Editor's Choice
The need to find alternatives to antibiotics is becoming a challenge for the treatment of infectious diseases. Current research focuses mostly on old antibiotics, natural compounds and non-antibiotics. This month, two articles are focusing on this topic. The first one is a review entitled “Antibacterial and Antifungal properties of Resveratrol” which provides an update on published studies on the antimicrobial properties of resveratrol. The second article published by Chopra et al. is an original article that repurposes the Disulfiram as an antistaphylococci.
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic antioxidant, present in multiple plants with multiples properties including antimicrobial properties. This review concerns the antimicrobial properties of resveratrol which have demonstrated inhibition activity against bacteria, viruses and fungi. Authors focus on the activity spectrum of resveratrol, its bacterial effect and discuss its anti-virulence properties, especially its capacity to reduce biofilm formation, bacterial motility, toxin secretion and to interfere with quorum sensing. Finally, they discuss the in vivo antimicrobial activity of resveratrol, its bioavailability by oral, systemic or topic administration and its antagonist or agonist effect in association with other compounds.
The development of new antibiotics is a long process and one solution is to repurpose already commercialized molecules as antimicrobials. An in vitro antimicrobial effect of Disulfiram has previously been found against Gram-positive bacteria (i.e Enterococcus faecium, S. aureus and S. epidermidis). Disulfiram is an old molecule used to treat chronic alcoholism with a well-established safety profile. In this study, Chopra et al. have confirmed the in vitro antibacterial efficacy of Disulfiram against Gram-positive bacteria and constructed an in vivo murine model of staphylococci infection to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of this compound. Disulfiram exhibits promising antistaphylococci activities with concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, a post-antibiotic effect and an ability to reduce biofilm and to kill intracellular S. aureus. It has synergistic activity with gentamycin and linezolid and is able to sensitize VRSA to vancomycin. Moreover, the murine model confirms its efficacy to reduce bacterial load in infected mice. This study is a good example of drug repurposing with experiments going from the screening of molecules to the proof of concept in an in vivo murine model. As this molecule is already used in human therapy, it could be available as an antimicrobial drug sooner than if it was a newly developed molecule.